1 November 2017

GI News - November 2017

GI News

GI News is published by the University of Sydney, School of Life and Environmental Sciences and the Charles Perkins Centre

Professor Jennie Brand-Miller, AM, PhD, FAIFST, FNSA
Editor: Philippa Sandall
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Big Chicken
How did chicken take over the world’s diet? Industrial farming is a big part of it. But secret sauce is 63,000 tons of antibiotics every year. This insight comes from Maryn McKenna in her new book – Big Chicken. Before those innovations, hens were just leftovers from egg production and “a chicken in every pot” was an empty political promise reports ConscienHealth’s Ted Kyle.

When you put antibiotics in a chicken’s food, they grow big and fat. So farmers can make an abundant supply of plump chickens on an industrial scale. Now, Americans eat far more chicken than any other meat. And farms dump millions of pounds of antibiotics into the environment. Most of it goes into chicken manure, which in turn becomes fertilizer for plant crops. The circle of farm life has become a circle of antibiotics. McKenna tells the story of Acronized® chicken from the 1950s. American Cyanamid promoted – and trademarked – its chicken soaked in antibiotics for a longer shelf life: They dipped all the chicken in the US in a bath of antibiotics and sealed it up in packages and thought it would last for a month on the shelf and people could eat it and be fine? Were they crazy? To me that story was really the purest distillation of this uncomplicated belief that science was going to make our lives better.

The problem goes beyond antibiotic resistant superbugs. Dumping all these antibiotics into the environment raises the possibility of contributing to the rise of obesity prevalence. Lee Riley and colleagues explained this theory in a 2013 paper. They estimate that as much as 18 million pounds of antibiotics from animal farming go into the environment. They describe evidence for how antibiotics can move from environment and into the food chain. And thus, they explain the possible link to obesity: “We propose that chronic exposures to low-residue antimicrobial drugs in food could disrupt the equilibrium state of intestinal microbiota and cause dysbiosis that can contribute to changes in body physiology. The obesity epidemic in the United States may be partly driven by the mass exposure of Americans to food containing low-residue antimicrobial agents.”

Ultimately, McKenna sees hope in the story of big chicken and antibiotics. Business, economics, and regulators might have failed. But consumers are succeeding. People are demanding chicken produced without antibiotics. McDonald’s is making a big move in that direction. In turn, it’s exerting a big influence on the rest of the industry.

The move away from antibiotics in chicken can be a case study for beef and pork production. Consumer demand for antibiotic-free meat is growing. Even in China, government is pushing for changes in meat production. It’s a work in progress. 


Chickens in the garden
Of all the homemade winter cure-alls, chicken soup is the best known and most loved. In fact, the term “chicken soup” has become idiomatic for all things restorative; benefiting every possible problem from the head to the soul. In many different cultures, chicken soup is a traditional treatment for symptoms of the common cold.

Chicken soup is widely known as “Jewish Penicillin”. Some of this may reflect the traditional use of chicken soup as a Sabbath meal and the perceived importance of piety in affecting health outcomes. Nonetheless, it’s a staple among Jewish grandmothers and their snotty grandchildren, worldwide.

Even before the Olympics, Greek grandmothers may also claim they invented Chicken soup for the common cold. Avgolemono (Αυγολέμονο) is a thick egg and lemon (chicken) broth widely administered for the symptoms of cold and flu, or for their prophylaxis on wet winter evenings. Although a quintessentially Greek dish, it is likely that its therapeutic use has its earliest origin in Sephardic tradition. Adding the “all important” lemon may have been the Greek contribution.

Not to be outdone, most Chinese grandmothers are ready and primed to produce chicken soup at the first sign of a sniffle. In traditional Chinese medicine, illness is perceived as a state of imbalance between yin and yang. Yin represents the darker cooling forces, while yang embodies the lighter, warmer forces. In this paradigm, the treatment for cold is obviously yang, and chicken soup is a prime example: restoring the yang forces and balancing the cold of yin.

There have been a few attempts to definitively establish these cold-busting effects in clinical studies. One 1978 study found that sipping hot chicken soup increased the velocity of nasal secretions (runny noses) in healthy volunteers. This could be a good thing for clearing a blocked nose but the study showed it only worked for a few minutes and wasn’t any more effective than hot water.

Beyond the steam, there is no chemical or biological reason for having chicken soup when we are sick with a cold. However, the psychology of chicken soup can’t be overlooked. Chicken soup is a comfort food on a day when we would really like some comfort. With the expectation of efficacy, the succour of being cared for, the taste of home on an otherwise dull day. There’s a good reason for chicken soup for the soul.


The Longevity List
This is an edited extract from Prof Merlin Thomas’s The Longevity List – Myth Busting the Top Ways to Live a Long and Healthy Life available from www.exislepublishing.com. Thomas is a physician, scientist and author who uses the cutting-edge science and research to help people live better, longer and healthier lives. He has been featured in many of the world’s leading medical journals, and is the author of Understanding Type 2 Diabetes, and Fast Living, Slow Ageing.

Mother and baby
The most prominent infection that affects newborns is called Group B Streptococcus (GBS), which can lead to babies developing sepsis or pneumonia before their immune systems are strong enough to fight off the bug. While GBS can be deadly, most newborns don't get infected. Researchers have now found that although the pathogen can be transmitted to infants through breastfeeding, some mothers produce protective carbohydrates in their milk that could help prevent infection. They also report that the carbohydrates can act as anti-biofilm agents, which is the first example of carbohydrates in human milk having this function. “This is the first example of generalised, antimicrobial activity on the part of the carbohydrates in human milk,” says chemist Steven Townsend. “One of the remarkable properties of these compounds is that they are clearly non-toxic, unlike most antibiotics.”

Curious as to how GBS was infecting these young infants in the first place, researchers about 10 years ago found cases in which the bacteria were transmitted through breast milk, despite milk's known immunologic benefits. But because most babies do not become infected with group B strep, Townsend and others wanted to see if some women's breast milk contained protective compounds that specifically fight that bacteria.

“As carbohydrate chemists, we knew from previous research that milk carbohydrates are protective against other bacteria, so we figured there would be a chance they would be active against group B strep, too,” says Townsend, who is at Vanderbilt University. To test this hypothesis in a pilot study, his lab gathered five samples of breast milk from donors, isolated the complex sugars, also called oligosaccharides, and grew GBS in the presence of the sugars. The women's GBS status was unknown.

“When bacteria want to harm us, they produce this gooey protective substance called a biofilm, which allows them to thwart our defense mechanisms,” Townsend says. “In the initial study, the oligosaccharides from one mother's milk killed nearly the entire colony. Another milk sample was moderately effective, while the remaining three showed diminished activity.”

In the current study, his team members are testing more than a dozen additional milk samples to see if they can replicate their first round of results. So far, two samples have shown activity against both bacteria and biofilms; two just worked against bacteria but not biofilms; and four helped fight biofilm formation but not bacteria. Six were relatively inactive against both. Preliminary data also suggest that some mothers produce milk carbohydrates that make the bacteria more susceptible to common antibiotics, including penicillin and erythromycin. If these results bear out through future studies, these carbohydrates could potentially become a part of an antibacterial treatment for infants or adults. They could also help reduce our dependence on some common antibiotics, Townsend says. “The great thing about these carbohydrates," he adds, "is that if they're safe for babies, they should be safe for everyone.”

Are we building places that harm our health? Yes, unequivocally, yes we are according to distinguished professor Jim Sallis opening a survey of the young science of built environments and obesity at the National Academy of Sciences.

Well into the 20th century, big cities and small towns alike were built for people. Mixed uses meant that neighbourhood businesses served the needs of people who lived nearby. Workplaces and schools often blended into neighbourhoods. People used the streets. By the end of the century, most cities and towns were built for cars. Zoning laws separated homes from businesses. Strip malls and fast food evolved around cars. Pedestrians became second-class citizens at best. Driving to work, to shop, and to school became a big part of daily routines. Public transit faded and frayed.

Did these profound shifts in our environment play a role in the rise of obesity? That was a question rarely studied until the 21st century, said Sallis. Rodrigo Reis, Karen Glanz, and Daniel Rodríguez provided excellent overviews of what we know about this question. Especially in Glanz’s presentation on the food environment, two things were clear.

First, we certainly have good reasons to suspect that we’ve built our world in a way that promotes obesity. But second, the evidence remains thin to pinpoint the critical factors and single out solutions. When tested, assumptions often prove to be false. Considerable money and effort, for example, went toward planting supermarkets in food deserts. But those efforts, by themselves, didn’t move the needle toward better nutrition.

Likewise, efforts to control fast food outlets haven’t yet produced impressive results. Glanz made an important point. These are early days. Maybe the problem is that our methods are weak for studying these questions. Maybe the strategies need refinement. Implementation, intensity, and time are all important factors. Or maybe some of our assumptions are wrong. The time is right for asking what we really know. Which beliefs about the built environment are indeed factual? Which are presumptions? And which of them are simply myths?
—Thanks to Ted Kyle of ConscienHealth for this report.

To read more 
  • For slides and a video recording of the proceedings, click here
  • For perspective on studies of the built environment and health, click here and here
  • For a systematic review of the relationship between local food environments and obesity, click here
  • Photo: Ted Kyle


Boiled eggs
The answer is a qualified yes. Here’s why. Eggs are popular. They are delicious and convenient and easy to cook. There’s also a steady stream of scientific research looking at whether we can enjoy them as part of our daily fare, or whether we should limit them. Two recent systematic reviews help explain the evidence and provide an answer for people with type 2 diabetes and those at risk. It’s worth remembering, eggs are a highly nutritious food. One hard-boiled egg is: 

  • A good source of protein and vitamins – B (B12, pantothenic acid, riboflavin, folate), A, E, and is one of the few food sources of vitamin D 
  • A relatively good source of iodine, iron, zinc and phosphorus 
  • Rich in omega-3 fatty acids and cholesterol, and is a source of saturated, poly-unsaturated, and mono-unsaturated fats, with a saturated : unsaturated fat ratio of 0.48 (the ideal ratio is less than or equal to 0.5 so they squeeze in). 
The systematic review that looked at egg consumption on cardiovascular risk factors for people with diabetes included all randomised controlled trials where people consumed either 6–12 eggs per week compared to a control group that consumed no eggs or few eggs (less than 2 eggs a week), for 12 to 20 weeks. In a total of 6 studies, the authors found that consuming 6 to 12 eggs per week had no impact on total cholesterol, LDL (“bad”) cholesterol, triglycerides, fasting blood glucose (sugar), or insulin and that HDL (“good”) cholesterol increased in 4 of the 6 included studies. While these results are encouraging, the study authors noted that “...the studies varied in diet composition aside from the addition of eggs.” Indeed, most of the studies were reduced energy (kilojoules/calories), and had beneficial ratios of saturated : unsaturated fats.

The second review looked at all of the data from observational studies and the risk of developing type 2 diabetes and found that from a total of ten studies (5 in Europe, 4 in the USA and 1 in Asia), consuming 1 egg a day was associated with a 13% higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes. However, they determined that risk was strongly influenced by where you live, with people in the USA consuming 1 egg a day having a 47% increased risk, and people living in Europe and Asia having no increased risk. The authors noted that “...in the US studies, egg intake is often associated with smoking or lower physical activity or higher intake of red meat, whereas this is generally not observed in studies outside the USA.” and that “Food preparation methods (e.g. boiled or fried eggs, whole eggs or only egg whites) or concurrent consumption of other foods that may increase diabetes risk (e.g. home fries, bacon) may also account for a part of the differences, but such information is not available in these studies.”

So yes, it is ok to eat an egg a day if you are at risk of or have type 2 diabetes – provided you enjoy them as part of a healthy balanced diet, rich in other quality proteins (lean poultry, meats and seafoods), minimally refined low GI carbohydrates, and healthy fats (e.g., Canola, olive, peanut, or sesame oil; nuts and seeds). It’s the overall eating pattern that counts. And poach don’t fry.

Declaration of interest. My family loves eggs. We keep chooks and enjoy meals made with their fresh eggs every week.

 Dr Alan Barclay  
Alan Barclay, PhD is a consultant dietitian. He worked for Diabetes Australia (NSW) from 1998–2014 . He is author/co-author of more than 30 scientific publications, and author/co-author of  The good Carbs Cookbook (Murdoch Books), Reversing Diabetes (Murdoch Books), The Low GI Diet: Managing Type 2 Diabetes (Hachette Australia) and The Ultimate Guide to Sugars and Sweeteners (The Experiment, New York).


The vegan diet is exclusively plant-based and excludes meat, fish, eggs, dairy products and honey. People choose to follow a vegan diet typically do so for a combination of reasons: ethical (not killing animals), environmental (a smaller environmental footprint), and health (a plant-only diet is better for you). Fruits, vegetables, legumes, wholegrains, nuts and seeds are nutritious options, no question. But like many food and diet trends, when opportunity knocks, the market answers with a myriad of processed products of varying nutritional quality. This month we take a closer look at the nutritional profile of some good and not-so-good vegan foods.

Quorn sausages – Quorn is the brand name for an interesting meat alternative composed of mycoprotein, which is a kind of stringy fungus (similar to mushrooms) that is compressed into more familiar food products such as “mince” and sausages. Quorn sausages contain more fibre per 50g serve than beef sausages, but unfortunately they don’t contain added Vitamin B12. Vitamin B12 only occurs in animal foods, so adding this essential vitamin to vegan products helps fill this dietary gap.

Chickpea and Sesame Seeds Vegetable Burgers – These contain less than half the protein of a beef burger but are packed with fibre. They are much lower in saturated fat than regular beef burgers.

Soy milk with added calcium – Soy milk is a good source of protein and is fortified with calcium and vitamin D. Note that not all plant milks (e.g. rice, oat, and nut “milks”) are fortified and generally have little protein, vitamins or minerals.

Tofutti Cream Cheese – is soy-based and contains less than half the fat of regular cream cheese, but also less than half the protein. There are 13+ ingredients including added sugar, salt, thickening agents, emulsifiers and preservatives. To be fair, regular cream cheese is not a healthy choice either but generally comes with far fewer additives.

Choc Chip Cookies – are gluten-free, egg-free, dairy-free and yeast-free, but they are made with refined flours, chocolate, sugar and salt. Like any cookie (vegan or not) these are high kilojoule/calorie treats best eaten sparingly and in small amounts.

Dairy-Free Chocolate – chocolate without the dairy is still chocolate, just because it is vegan doesn’t give you a free pass to eat it in unlimited amounts.

Unsweetened Coconut Milk – this brand is better than regular coconut milk because it is has half the fat and some calcium added (not all coconut milks have calcium added so check the label). However, it has 16 times less protein than regular milk from regular cows, and has lots of additives.

Protein Snack Bar – this is a highly processed caramel and chocolate bar made according to the label with “real plant-based food ingredients.” There’s a lot of them (we counted around 50). Consider it an occasional treat and opt for an apple or an orange or a handful or nuts for a regular snack food.

Protein Snack Bar

Chocolate Frozen Dessert – This soy-based frozen dessert is lower in saturated fat than regular ice cream as the fat predominantly comes from vegetable oils (not cream). However, it’s no lower in calories (kilojoules) and the main ingredient is added sugar. Like ice cream, it’s an occasional treat.

The un-plugged truth 

  • A “vegan” label does not guarantee a healthy product. 
  • Highly processed foods vegan foods can be high in calories (kilojoules) saturated fat, salt and added sugars and are likely to have a large environmental footprint. 
  • For the healthiest vegan options stick to minimally processed plant foods, including products fortified with essential vitamins lacking in vegan diets.
Thanks to Rachel Ananin AKA TheSeasonalDietitian.com for her assistance with this article.

Nicole Senior    
Nicole Senior Nicole Senior pulls the plug on hype and marketing spin to provide reliable, practical advice on food for health and enjoyment. She is an Accredited Nutritionist, author, consultant, cook, food enthusiast and mother who strives to make sense of nutrition science and delights in making healthy food delicious.    
Contact: You can follow her on Twitter, Facebook, Pinterest, Instagram or check out her website.


Carrots are one of the most popular vegetables in our kitchen and for good reasons says dietitian Nicole Senior. For a start, they are very versatile: they are delicious raw or cooked, and can blend in to most dishes whether it is a stir fry, casserole, grill or salad. It’s really no wonder you’ll find them in most people’s refrigerator. One of my favourite ways to eat this sunshine-y root vegetable is roasted whole with a short length of stem still on (wash thoroughly, then just brush with a little oil and bake). With the water content reduced by the oven, the caramelisation of the natural sugars creates a kind of magic in your mouth and one of the many reasons I shall never be a raw foodist! Which reminds me of another favourite way to enjoy them: with a drizzle of extra virgin olive oil and honey (and a sprinkle of cumin if you like a little spice). I love them in soup too and marvel how well they go with chicken and chickpeas, or in the slow cooker with beef and lentils.

There’s another kind of magic that happens when carrots are cooked long and slow and turn to velvet but still hold their shape: so comforting. But of course, carrots also shine in summer salads and the trick to a super salad is to slice the carrot in long slender strips or ribbons. You can do strips or batons with a sharp knife but you’ll look like a pro if you use a julienne blade on a V-slicer that produces willowy, regular lengths that look gorgeous and perform a texture tango in your mouth. Another very modern idea is to use a spiralizer to make long curly carrot noodles (‘coodles’ anyone?) or vegetable peeler to slice long ribbons. If you do the same with zucchini you can create a two-colour ribbon salad that only needs your favourite chopped herbs and a knockout vinaigrette dressing.

Aside from all this, carrots are really good for you. They even give their name to a family of phytochemicals called carotenoids: carrots are rich in a particular type called beta-carotene that gives them their orange colour. But carrots were purple or dull yellow 5000 years ago in Afghanistan where they are thought to originate, but these ‘heirloom’ varieties are now available again and look simply spectacular on your plate. Being root vegetables, carrots of any colour are high in fibre for digestive health. They also have impressive amounts of vitamin K for healthy bones, vitamin C for immunity and potassium to maintain ideal blood pressure. And if that wasn’t enough, munching on carrots is good for the teeth and gums too because they massage the gums and increase production of saliva which rinses out the mouth and helps to protect against decay.

Raw or cooked, carrots won’t send your blood glucose on a roller coaster ride either. Why? Well, not only are they low GI (39), they have very few carbs. In fact, to get a hefty portion of carbs (38 g) from carrots you’d have to crunch through at least 5 cups or 750g (about 1½lb) raw at a sitting – a pretty awesome achievement even for carrot lovers.


This month we are making the most of Sydney’s carrot glut in the kitchen with Kate Hemphill’s roast carrot humous with carrot top pesto, carrot and date wholemeal muffins, some classic carrot soup and salad recipes from Elizabeth David and Jane Grigson and Barbara Solomon’s chicken and barley soup from the Monday Morning Cooking Club.

Kate Hemphill is a trained chef. She contributed the recipes to Ian Hemphill’s best-selling Spice and Herb Bible. You will find more of her recipes on the Herbies spices website. Or you can follow her on Instagram (@herbieskitchen). Kate uses Herbies spices and blends, but you can substitute with whatever you have in your pantry.

Instead of throwing away the tops of lovely fresh carrots, make this versatile pesto with the leafy ends. Makes approx 2 cups of hommous and 1 cup of pesto.


1 bunch carrots, with tops, washed and cut into 5cm (2in) pieces
1 tbsp olive oil ½ tsp ground cumin
400g (14oz) can chickpeas, drained
2 tbsp tahini
1 small clove garlic
Salt, to taste
2 tbsp lemon juice
75ml (2½fl oz) olive oil

2 cups carrot tops, loosely packed
1 cup flat leaf parsley, loosely packed
3 sprigs mint, leaves picked
1 clove garlic
40g (1½oz) parmesan, grated
30g (1oz) pine nuts
100ml (3½fl oz) olive oil

Preheat the oven to 180C (350F). Toss carrots in olive oil and cumin and roast for 40 minutes until soft and browned. • To make hommous, combine cooked carrots with chickpeas, tahini, garlic, salt and lemon juice in a food processor. Blend while pouring in oil and blitz until smooth. • For the pesto, pulse carrot tops, parsley, mint, garlic, parmesan and pine nuts in a food processor to break down, then add oil while blending. Season to taste.

Per serve (75 g)
740kJ/175 calories; 3.5g protein; 15g fat (includes 2.5g saturated fat; saturated : unsaturated fat ratio 0.2); 5g available carbs (includes 1.5g sugars and 3.5g starches); 3g fibre; 125mg sodium; 185mg potassium; sodium : potassium ratio 0.68

The mashed carrot gives a wonderful moist texture and the dates give a natural sweetness to this tasty, better-for-you, lunchbox treat. Prep: 15 mins • Cook: 30 mins • Makes: 12


500g (1lb 2oz) carrots, peeled, boiled until tender, and drained
100ml (3½fl oz) vegetable oil
1 cup semi-skimmed milk
2 eggs, lightly beaten 400g (14oz)
wholemeal self-raising flour
1 tsp ground cassia or cinnamon
75g (2½oz) soft brown sugar
100g (3½oz) pitted dates, chopped

Pre-heat oven to 190°C (375°F). Grease or line a 12-hole large muffin pan or two 12-hole mini muffin pans • Mash or blitz carrots to a smooth puree and combine in a bowl with the oil, milk, and eggs. • Combine the flour, sugar, cassia and dates in large bowl, then add the carrot mixture, stirring until well combined. Spoon the batter into greased or lined muffin pan holes and bake for 20–25 minutes until golden. • Remove from oven and allow muffins to cool on a wire rack. Once cooled, muffins will keep in an airtight container for 3 days.

Per muffin (or 2 mini muffins) 
1105kJ/265 calories; 6g protein; 9.5g fat (includes 1g saturated fat; saturated : unsaturated fat ratio 0.12); 36g available carbs (includes 15g sugars and 21g starches); 6g fibre; 255mg sodium; 330mg potassium; sodium : potassium ratio 0.77


We have been seduced to look for new recipes in the latest cookbooks by the hottest chefs with the most gorgeous photographs. Frankly, if you want a simple vegetable soup or salad, turn to the time-tested classics: the books of Elizabeth David and Jane Grigson. The writing is good. The food fabulous.

Elizabeth David’s classic carrot soup from French Provincial Cooking. Why Crecy? It’s reputed to have the best carrots in France and as David says, “It’s important to have very good quality carrots”.

375g (¾lb) carrots, 1 large potato, 1 shallot or half a small onion, 30g (1oz) butter, 600ml (1 pint) veal, chicken or vegetable stock, or water if no stock is available, seasoning, parsley and chervil if possible.

Scrape the carrots, shred them on a coarse grater, put them together with the chopped shallot and the peeled and diced potato in a thick pan with the melted butter. Season with salt, pepper, a scrap of sugar. Cover the pan, and leave over a very low flame for about 15 minutes, until the carrots have almost melted to a purée. Pour over the stock, and simmer another 15 minutes. Sieve (blend), return the purée to the pan, see that the seasoning is correct, add a little chopped parsley and some leaves of chervil. Enough for three.

From Jane Grigson’s Vegetable Book, the go-to book for the definitive guide on the selection and cooking vegetable. Still.

Grated raw carrots, dressed with an olive oil and lemon juice vinaigrette and plenty of chopped herbs – either fennel or tarragon, or chives and parsley mixed. Chill well and drain off any surplus liquid before serving.

As above, but instead of herbs use seedless raisins and split (slivered) almonds. The flavour is improved if you toast the almonds.

Monday Morning Cooking Club started back in 2006 when six Jewish women who live in Sydney came together on a Monday morning to share recipes and talk about food. What they started as an idea to raise money for charity, grew into a project to document their community’s somewhat obsessive relationship with food, and has become a series of beautifully photographed books.

Barbara Solomon’s totally, totally delicious soup from the Monday Morning Cooking Club (their first book) may not cure a cold but it sure nourishes body and soul. Use leftover roast chicken, or pick up half a chicken from the takeaway and shred the flesh, discarding the skin and bones. Makes 8 servings.

2 tbsp olive oil
2 onions, chopped
2 carrots, peeled and chopped
2 stalks celery, sliced
2 garlic cloves, crushed
400g (14oz) can diced or crushed tomatoes
8 cups chicken stock (home-made is best, but a bouillon cube is fine)
1 cup pearl barley
2 cups shredded chicken meat (no skin)
2 tbsp chopped parsley


Heat the olive oil in a large saucepan and cook the onions, carrots and celery until soft. Add the garlic to the pan and cook for a further 2 minutes, then add the tomatoes and stock and bring to the boil. • Add the barley and reduce the heat to a simmer, then cook for about 50 minutes (no lid) or until the barley is tender. Add the chicken and parsley, and stir to heat through. Season well and serve.

Per serving (based on making 8 servings) 
Energy: 885kJ/210cals; Protein 12g; Fat 8.5g (includes 1.6g saturated fat; saturated : unsaturated fat ratio 0. 23); Available carbohydrate 20g; Fibre 4.5g


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