1 April 2013

GI News—April 2013


  • Fats AND carbs count when it comes to your cholesterol;  
  • Even our hunter-gatherer ancestors had clogged arteries;  
  • What our teeth tell us about our diet;  
  • Diet and acne - the latest;  
  • The scoop on low GI bulgur; 
  • Michael Moss's New York Times bestseller Salt Sugar Fat -- what's missing; 
  • Four great low GI recipes to try.  
GI News 
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Food for Thought

Would viewing food as ‘a cocktail of hormones’ deliver a better diet for weight loss and health?  
The search for the perfect diet – one that promotes weight loss and optimal health – has left many people empty handed. In a Perspectives piece in Science, University of Cincinnati researchers, Prof Randy Seeley and Dr Karen Ryan, suggest that the ‘big picture’ macronutrient focus on high-fat or processed carbohydrate-rich diets could be misplaced. They suggest that it might be time to dig deeper and look more closely at the micronutrients that act at the cellular level. Why? Well, our bodies’ cells talk to each other in a complex language of chemical messages and some of those chemicals come from the food we eat. It’s the problems in cell communication that can lead to diseases such as diabetes and cancer.

What Seeley and Ryan are suggesting is that we should view food as if it is a “cocktail of hormones” because of the way its derivatives (the micronutrients) act on cells within the body. Take the micronutrient leucine (an amino acid) for example. It has been found to trigger brain pathways that reduce food intake and body weight. However, we need to get it from foods like soybeans, some cuts of beef, brown rice, chicken egg yolks and cow’s milk as our bodies don’t make it.

Seeley reminds us that what we eat is not just made up of various amounts of fat, protein and sugar/starch. He says, ‘As food is broken down, its micronutrient components circulate in the blood and act on cell-surface receptors on multiple organs to change the activities of those cells in the same way that hormones made in our body do. In this way our bodies can listen and respond to what foods we are eating.’

The authors write: ‘Viewing food as a hormone could substantially influence how we make dietary recommendations to promote health or treat specific diseases. Rather than using only nutritional epidemiology to identify what healthy people consume, we may be able to design diets from the bottom up – based on their ability to alter signalling pathways in specific tissues that we know are linked to metabolic disease. In addition, this framework suggests that the argument over whether fat or sugar is to blame for the increasing incidence of obesity may be misguided. Macronutrients are classified by their energy-yielding biochemical properties, not by their ability to activate receptors in a manner similar to that of a hormone. It may be more productive to examine the signaling properties of a given diet to understand whether it will promote weight gain or weight loss. Identifying these food – and food metabolite – receptor interactions will provide new opportunities to understand the relationship between what we eat and diseases including obesity.’

‘Designing a diet based on how its various micronutrients turn on or off certain receptors in different tissues is a bottom-up way to design diets. Just as different levels of various hormones can influence our health, so can the “hormones” that come in from our food,’ says Seeley.

What are micronutrients? As the name suggests, micronutrients are substances found in foods and drinks that are essential for life, but they are only required in relatively small amounts. For example, vitamins and minerals are micronutrients as they only make up a tiny portion of the food we eat, but in many ways they are just as important for the body as macronutrients (fat, carbs, protein etc). Together with water, our bodies need micronutrients for the release of the energy as well as other aspects of chemical changes.

Prof Randy Seeley
Prof Randy Seeley is Donald C. Harrison Endowed Professor, Director, UC/CCHMC Center of Excellence in Obesity and Diabetes. His work has focused on the actions of various peripheral hormones in the CNS that serve to regulate food intake, body weight and the regulation of circulating fuels. In particular, he has focused upon the numerous hypothalamic and G.I. peptides and their associated receptors that influence both energy intake as well as peripheral metabolic processes. You can contact him on: randy.seeley@uc.edu

What’s New?

Even our hunter-gatherer ancestors had clogged arteries. 
In the last century, atherosclerotic vascular disease has replaced infectious disease as the leading cause of death (from heart attack and stroke) across the developed world. A new study in The Lancet, ‘Atherosclerosis across 4000 years of human history: the Horus study of four ancient populations’  reveals that clogged arteries are nothing new – hunter-gatherers had them too! The findings provide an important twist to the understanding of atherosclerotic vascular disease forcing researchers to think outside the box. While modern lifestyles can accelerate the development of plaque on our arteries, the prevalence of the disease across human history shows it may have a more basic connection to inflammation and aging.

The international research team carried out CT scans of 137 mummies and found artery plaque in every single population they looked at from pre-agricultural hunter-gatherers (the Unangans) in the Aleutian Islands to Native American (ancestral Puebloans) living along the Colorado River, the pre-historic cultures of ancient Peru and ancient Egyptians.

‘This is not a disease only of modern circumstance but a basic feature of human aging in all populations,’ said Prof. Caleb Finch, a senior author of the study. ‘Turns out even a Bronze Age guy from 5000 years ago had calcified, carotid arteries,’ he said, referring to Otzi the Iceman, a natural mummy who lived around 3200 BCE and was discovered frozen in a glacier in the Italian Alps in 1991.

Otzi the Iceman

Overall, the researchers found probable or definite atherosclerosis in 34% of the mummies studied, with calcification of arteries more pronounced in the mummies that were older at time of death. Artherosclerosis was equally common in mummies identified as male or female.

‘We found that heart disease is a serial killer that has been stalking mankind for thousands of years,’ commented co-author Prof Gregory Thomas. ‘A common assumption is that the rise in levels of atherosclerosis is predominantly lifestyle-related, and that if modern humans could emulate pre-industrial or even pre-agricultural lifestyles, that atherosclerosis, or at least its clinical manifestations, would be avoided. Our findings seem to cast doubt on that assumption, and at the very least, we think they suggest that our understanding of the causes of atherosclerosis is incomplete, and that it might be somehow inherent to the process of human aging.’

Processed meat linked to risk of early death. 
Eating lots of processed meats (that includes bacon, ham, sausages, salami, pancetta and prosciutto etc.) can increase the risk of premature death due to cardiovascular disease and cancer according to a study published in BMC Medicine. The researchers tracked just under half a million people for an average of 12.7 years as part of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition. They report that participants who ate 160g (5¼oz) or more of processed meats a day had a 44% increased risk of dying compared with those who ate 10g (1/3oz) or less. You can read what NHS Choices review of the study here.

Processed meats

Diet and acne. 
Diet was commonly used as an adjunct treatment for acne from the late 19th century, but in the 1960s, the diet–acne connection fell out of favour. A recent review in J Acad Nutr Diet details the history and existing scientific literature and finds that the growing body of evidence suggests a relationship between diet and acne. The evidence is more convincing for high glycemic load diets, compared with other dietary factors report the authors.

Why commercially prepared foods seem to undermine the family meal. 
Sitting down to dinner and enjoying a healthy meal seems to be in the too hard basket for many families these days. Most parents will cite being busy, workplace obligations, children's extracurricular and school activities, and scheduling conflicts. According to a US study reported in Elinor Ochs’s and Margaret Beck’s book Fast-Forward Family, busy lives are not the only culprit. The consumption of preprepared convenience foods, many of which are packaged as individual meals, stand alongside busy schedules as a root factor in undermining dinner as a family event. Read more here.  

Salt Sugar Fat. 
Over three and a half years, investigative journalist Michael Moss interviewed chemists, nutrition scientists, behavioural biologists, food technologists, marketing executives, package designers, chief executives and lobbyists to produce this insider’s guide to the food industry and the decisions behind the creation of many of the big-selling, highly processed products we see on our supermarket shelves. Key chapters include ‘Is It Cereal or Candy?’ (a potted history of the breakfast cereal aisle way back to Kellogg), and ‘Liquid Gold’ (the industrialization of cheese from Kraft’s processed cheese product in 1915). In his Epilogue, Moss writes: ‘If nothing else this book is intended as a wake-up call to the issues and tactics at play in the food industry, to the fact that we are not helpless in facing them down. We have choices .... After all, we decide what to buy. We decide how much to eat.’

Salt Sugar Fat
Moss’s account of food industry’s use of food technology to create/satisfy consumer demand is fascinating. However, by focusing on the usual suspect headline grabbers (sugar, fat and salt), he has left out the new kid on the block (the one that hasn't hit the headlines. Yet.). The highly refined starches that food manufacturers are now using to replace the refined sugar in (supposedly) healthier products are as devoid of nutrients as the refined sugars they are removing. While providing an illusion of improved healthiness, the new low-sugar diet variants are no better for our health than the original, and many have a much higher GI. Dr Alan Barclay reported on refined starches and what you need to know about them HERE. You won't find them listed in the ingredients panel by name. But you can check out their additive code numbers in the following table.

Hidden starches in foods

GS1 GoScan is a free ‘extended labelling’ app that provides Australian shoppers with nutrition, dietary and allergen information directly from the food and beverage manufacturer or brand owner and based on the product’s actual batch number. It was developed in consultation with the Australian Food and Grocery Council, Australian Universities and organisations such as Allergy and Anaphylaxis Australia and Coeliac Australia and includes certification logos from the National Heart Foundation, Glycemic Index Foundation, Healthy Kids Association and Coeliac Australia.

  • For more information or to register for updates, visit www.goscan.com.au 
  • Dietitian Emma Stirling, who was given access to a prototype, reports on it HERE.

Get the Scoop

The scoop on bulgur (GI 48). 
Bulgur (also spelled bulgar, bulghur, burghul and bourghul) is a versatile, nutty-tasting, wholegrain cracked wheat that just may be one of our oldest processed foods. ‘Diners around 8000 years ago could enjoy a bowl of instant wheat cereal that wasn’t very different from hot wheat cereals served today according to a study in Vegetation History and Archaeobotany. The ancient cereal consisted of parboiled bulgur wheat that Early Neolithic Bulgarians could refresh in minutes with hot water. “People boiled the grain, dried it, removed the bran and ground it into coarse particles,” lead author Soultana-Maria Valamoti told Discovery News. “In this form, the cereal grain can be stored throughout the year and consumed easily, even without boiling, by merely soaking in hot water.” She and her colleagues studied the Bulgarian grain, excavated at a site called Kapitan Dimitrievo. Very high magnification by microscope revealed precise details about the individual cereal grains, including their composition.’ Sadly the page with the full story at Discovery News, seems to have been devoured.

Making wheat into bulgur has been an integral part of Middle Eastern cuisine for thousands of years and you can still see villagers preparing it the traditional way: boiling the wheat in huge pots, spreading the cooked berries or groats over flat roof tops to dry, then cracking the hardened kernels into coarse pieces and sieving them into different sizes.

You will find you can buy bulgur in larger supermarkets, natural/organic health food stores and Middle Eastern produce stores. You may also (if you are lucky) have a choice of grades – fine (#1), medium (#2), coarse (#3), and very coarse (#4). You can make pilafs with medium, coarse, and very coarse bulgur. Tabbouleh and kibbe are best made with fine bulgur. It is sometimes confused with cracked wheat, which is crushed wheat grain that has not been parboiled.

Tabouli: When Money Saving Meals author Diane Temple was shopping for bulgur, the owner of her local Middle Eastern produce store leaned over the counter and said: ‘Don’t use too much if you are making tabouli, just a small handful.’ She then proceeded to share her own recipe, recommending curly parsley rather than flat-leaf for a better texture. The recipe serves 6–8.


  • Ingredients: 3 tightly packed cups (about 3 bunches) parsley leaves, chopped; ½ cup mint leaves, chopped; 3 medium green onions (shallots/spring onions), white and light green parts sliced; 3 large red ripe roma (plum) tomatoes, chopped; 2 tbsp bulgur; 1 large Lebanese cucumber, quartered lengthwise then finely sliced; juice 1 lemon; 2 tbsp olive oil
  • Method: Place the chopped parsley, mint and green onions in a large bowl and spread the chopped tomatoes over the top in a thickish layer. Sprinkle over the burghul. Top with the finely chopped the cucumber. Drizzle over the lemon juice and oil. Cover and chill until ready to serve, then toss to mix all the ingredients together. 
  • Per serve (serves 8) Energy: 292kJ/ 70 cals; Protein 1. g; Fat 5 g; Carbs 4g Fibre 3g.

In the GI News Kitchen

American dietitian and author of Good Carbs, Bad Carbs, Johanna Burani, shares favourite recipes with a low or moderate GI from her Italian kitchen. For more information, check out Johanna's website. The photographs are by Sergio Burani. His food, travel and wine photography website is photosbysergio.com.


Pao’s asparagus soup. 
This recipe is not Italian at all. It came to me from Ireland during a conversation with a fabulous Thai chef while we were visiting good friends in Bangkok more than 20 years ago. This chef, Boonraud Poonruang, fondly called “Pao,” made this soup while previously working in Ireland. Pao recently left this life and it is in tribute to her that I share her recipe, just at a time when this year’s crop of asparagus is starting to show up in Italian markets. I like to use the thin green asparagus. They are less “woody” than the thicker ones so there is less waste. Servings: 4 x 1¼ cups.

 2 cups chicken or vegetable broth
1lb (450g) fresh asparagus, washed, bottom ends cut off, cut into 1in (2.5cm) pieces
1 tbsp butter or margarine
1 medium onion, chopped
½ tbsp flour
½ cup evaporated skimmed milk
¼ tsp salt
1/8 tsp pepper

Pao’s asparagus soup

Bring the broth to a boil in medium sauce pan. Add the asparagus. Return to a boil and cook for 3 minutes. Set aside.
Melt the butter or margarine in a small pan, add the onions and sauté until soft but not browned (approximately 3 minutes). Add the flour and the milk (slowly) mix well and continue cooking on a lower flame until the liquid starts to thicken.
Add the flour mixture to the asparagus and simmer for 3 minutes. Add salt and pepper. Puree until velvety using an immersion blender or food processor and serve hot.

Per serve 
400kJ/96 calories; 5g protein; 3g fat (includes 2g saturated fat); 13g available carbs; 3g fibre 

Here's how you can cut back on the food bills and enjoy fresh-tasting, easily prepared, seasonal, satisfying and delicious low or moderate GI meals that don’t compromise on quality and flavour one little bit with our Money Saving Meals including this easy salad from Chrissy Freer's Supergrains.

Roasted capsicum with (low GI) freekeh salad and labneh.
Freekeh is wheat that’s picked green and roasted. It’s also low GI – wholegrain freekeh (GI 43) and cracked freekeh (GI 55). You can use it in recipes where you would typically use rice, bulgur or couscous. You will find it in larger supermarkets and health food stores. Serves 4.

1 cup freekeh
2 large red capsicums (peppers), halved and seeded
400g/14oz can chickpeas, drained and rinsed
2 tbsp snipped chives
75g/3oz baby rocket (arugula) leaves
120g/4oz labneh or marinated feta

Freekeh salad and labneh

Cook freekeh in a large saucepan of boiling water for 45 minutes or until tender. Rinse under cold running water and drain well. Meanwhile …
Preheat the grill (broiler) in high. Place the capsicums, skin side up, on a baking tray and grill until the skin is blisters, about 6-8 minutes. Transfer to a heatproof bowl, cover, and set aside to cool slightly, then carefully peel away the skin and thinly slice the flesh. Set aside.
Whisk together the olive oil, lemon juice, sumac and honey to make the dressing.
Put the cooked freekeh, capsicums, chickpeas, chives and rocket in a large bowl. Add the dressing and gently toss to combine then season to taste. Serve topped with the labneh and sprinkled with a little extra sumac.

Per serve 
1400kJ/340 calories; 17g protein; 10g fat (includes 5g saturated fat); 40g available carbs; 10g fibre


Supergrains (Murdoch Books/Australia; Random House/UK & US) is available in good bookshops and online. It has over 100 recipes for quinoa, amaranth, buckwheat, brown rice, chia, millet, oats, kamut, spelt, barley, faro and freekeh and includes 40 gluten-free recipes.

Rosemary smoked tomato jam with poached egg. 
McCormick scientists (yes, from the herb and spice company) have unlocked the mechanism behind rosemary’s ability to reduce blood glucose spikes and cholesterol. According to data they have published in the Journal of Agriculture and Food Chemistry, extracts from rosemary may activate energy-sensing molecules in cells, which then activate pathways to breakdown carbs and lipids. This research inspired us to share with you this delicious rosemary smoked jam recipe – a tart-sweet spicy condiment for sandwiches, burgers and grilled meats. We discovered it at their 2013 Flavour Forecast, an annual event where the chefs showcase their range of taste trends. If you like shashouka, you’ll love this way to serve poached eggs. Of course, you don’t have to wait and make it for eight. Make the jam and serve it with a poached egg for a tasty breakfast, lunch or dinner. Serves 8.

1kg (2.4lb) Roma tomatoes, cored, halved and seeded
1 medium onion, cut into thick slices
1 small green mild chilli, seeded
¼ cup brown sugar
2 tbsp (40ml) cider vinegar
1 tsp McCormick rosemary leaves, crushed
1/2 tsp McCormick sea salt (optional)
1/4 tsp McCormick ground black pepper

Poached egg 
1 tbsp white wine vinegar
8 large (60g/2oz) eggs
 8 slices grainy (low GI) bread

Rosemary smoked tomato jam with poached egg

Grill the tomatoes, onion and chilli on medium-high heat for about 5 minutes or until lightly charred, turning occasionally.
Chop the tomatoes, onion and chilli and place in a saucepan. Add sugar, vinegar, rosemary, salt and pepper and bring to the boil. Reduce the heat to low; simmer for 1 hour or until thickened, stirring occasionally. When the jam is ready …
Fill a large deep saucepan with 4cm (2in) of water. Add the white wine vinegar and bring to the boil. Reduce the heat to medium so that the water is simmering. Break 1 egg into small dish and carefully slide into the simmering water (bubbles should begin to break the surface of the water). Repeat with the remaining eggs. Poach the eggs for 3–5 minutes or until the whites are completely set and the yolks begin to thicken. Carefully remove the eggs with slotted spoon and drain on paper towel.
Place a slice of bread (or toast if you prefer) on each plate and top with a dollop or two of jam and a poached egg.

Per serve (1 egg per person) 
960kJ/230 calories; 11g protein; 6g fat; 33g carbs; 3g fibre

We Are What We Ate

What our teeth tell us about our diet. 
DNA from tartar (calcified dental plaque) on human teeth reveals the changes in our oral bacteria that accompanied the changes in our food supply over the past 7500 years. ‘Dental plaque represents the only easily accessible source of preserved human bacteria,’ says lead author Dr Christina Adler. ‘Genetic analysis of plaque can create a powerful new record of dietary impacts, health changes and oral pathogen genomic evolution, deep into the past.’

The international team of researchers led by the University of Adelaide's ACAD (Australian Centre for Ancient DNA) extracted DNA from tartar from 34 prehistoric northern European human skeletons, and traced changes in the nature of oral bacteria from the last hunter-gatherers, through the first farmers to the Bronze Age and medieval times. ‘This is the first record of how our evolution over the last 7500 years has impacted the bacteria we carry with us, and the important health consequences,’ says study leader Professor Alan Cooper. ‘Oral bacteria in modern man are markedly less diverse than historic populations and this is thought to contribute to chronic oral and other disease in post-industrial lifestyles … The composition of oral bacteria changed markedly with the introduction of farming, and again around 150 years ago. With the introduction of processed sugar and flour [starch] in the Industrial Revolution, we can see a dramatically decreased diversity in our oral bacteria, allowing domination by caries-causing strains. The modern mouth basically exists in a permanent disease state.’
 – Nature Genetics.

Prof Alan Cooper

– Media contact: alan.cooper@adelaide.edu.au
 The Australian Centre for Ancient DNA (ACAD), which was established by Prof Alan Cooper and opened in 2006, provides the specialist equipment and ultra-sterile working environment required for the study of minute traces of preserved genetic material. ACAD has been designed to provide a centre for evolutionary research in the Southern Hemisphere, particularly the impacts and timing of environmental change (eg climate, humans) on animals, plants and microbes by measuring the genetic records preserved in bones, teeth, leaves and seeds, feces, and other remains from caves, museums and even sediment cores from lakes, rivers and marine sites.

GI Symbol News with Dr Alan Barclay

Alan Barclay
Dr Alan Barclay

When it comes to blood cholesterol, both fats and carbohydrates count. 
For many years, dietary advice to help people lower their blood cholesterol has focused on the fats in our diets. Specifically, people with high blood cholesterol have been advised to reduce their consumption of foods high in saturated and trans fats and to replace these with foods high in unsaturated fats.

  • Foods naturally high in saturated fats include animal foods like fatty meats (sausages, bacon, salami, devon, etc), butter, ghee, cream, hard cheese, and full cream milk. 
  • Foods high in trans fats include some margarines (e.g., cooking and some cheap table varieties), and cooking fats for deep-frying (particular those used in fast food restaurants) and shortening for baking (pies, pastries, cakes, biscuits/cookies, buns, etc). 
  • Foods that are high in unsaturated fats, include oily fish (e.g. salmon and mackerel), nuts (e.g. almonds and cashews) and seeds (e.g. sunflower and pumpkin), oils and spreads (e.g. olive, Canola, peanut, sesame, avocado). 
Why does this matter? Well, there is very strong evidence that replacing saturated fats with unsaturated fats will lower cholesterol by 0.16 mmol/L and thereby reduce a person’s chance of having a heart attack or stroke by 14%.

Some organisations also advise people to reduce their total fat intake to help them lose weight. This is because fats are the most kilojoule-dense (37 kJ (9 Calories) per gram) of all of the nutrients (carbs provide 16 kJ (4 Calories) per gram and proteins 17 kJ (4 Calories) per gram), and weight loss also helps people to lower their blood cholesterol levels.

While fats are the primary nutrient of interest when it comes to lowering blood cholesterol levels, carbohydrate-containing foods also play an important part. For example, oats, legumes, fruits and vegetables, contain certain kinds of fibre (e.g., beta-glucans) that may help lower blood cholesterol levels by binding it in our guts. In addition to dietary fibre, there is growing evidence that the kind of available carbohydrate (sugars, maltodextrins and starches) that we eat also has an effect on our blood cholesterol levels.

A new systematic review and meta-analysis of 28 randomised controlled trials has provided level 1 evidence that high fibre low GI diets can significantly reduce blood cholesterol (total and LDL) levels by 0.13 mmol/L, independent of weight loss. It is thought that healthy low GI diets lower blood cholesterol levels by decreasing insulin secretion, and thereby reducing the activity of the key enzyme involved in cholesterol synthesis. Importantly, the study found that the average dietary GI needed to be ideally at least 20 units lower than what is normally found in most developed nations. In other words, people with high cholesterol should be aiming for a daily average GI of 45 or less.  

The GI Symbol, making healthy low GI choices easy choices

New GI Symbol

For more information about the GI Symbol Program
Dr Alan W Barclay, PhD
Chief Scientific Officer
Glycemic Index Foundation (Ltd)
Phone: +61 (0)2 9785 1037
Mob: +61 (0)416 111 046
Fax: +61 (0)2 9785 1037
Email: alan.barclay@gisymbol.com
Website: www.gisymbol.com

GI Update with Prof Jennie Brand-Miller

Prof Jennie Brand-Miller answers your questions. 


When I give talks, I am regularly asked if chronic disease such as heart disease, cancer, diabetes, stroke and arthritis an inevitable part of aging. 
It is good to be able to tell people that it’s not inevitable at all. It is possible to reduce your risk of the chronic diseases associated with growing older by making some lifestyle changes. This is because we now know that the basis for accelerated aging and disease is low grade systemic inflammation. Throughout our history, inflammation has been both our saviour and executioner. As saviour, it plays a central role in our immune system by killing bacteria and invading pathogens, thereby protecting us. However, when this inflammation process is chronic, our body turns on itself, attacks its own blood vessels, nerves and organs causing accelerated aging and precipitating disease. Chronic inflammation also plays a part as an underlying cause of excess body fat, and could explain why some people just can’t lose weight.

What causes low-grade systemic inflammation? It is the result of oxidative stress in the cells and is caused by a number of lifestyle factors including being overweight, having high blood glucose (having too much glucose makes the cells see ‘red’), high cholesterol or high blood pressure. Our lifestyle (diet, sedentariness, lack of exercise, lack of sleep, stress etc.) has become our mortal adversary.

What we can do about it. Decreasing inflammation in the body today is the most prudent measure to resisting tomorrow’s ailments. It is well known, that weight loss will reduce inflammation and thus the risk of developing such diseases. A randomised controlled trial from the Diogenes study published in Circulation also indicates that eating a low GI diet, with or without a change in weight, is good for your overall health and will help prevent the diseases that are linked to inflammation (obesity, diabetes, heart disease, cancer, arthritis).

GI testing by an accredited laboratory
North America

Dr Alexandra Jenkins
Glycemic Index Laboratories
20 Victoria Street, Suite 300
Toronto, Ontario M5C 298 Canada
Phone +1 416 861 0506
Email info@gilabs.com
Web www.gilabs.com

Fiona Atkinson
Research Manager, Sydney University Glycemic Index Research Service (SUGiRS)
Human Nutrition Unit, School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences
Sydney University
NSW 2006 Australia
Phone + 61 2 9351 6018
Fax: + 61 2 9351 6022
Email sugirs@mmb.usyd.edu.au
Web www.glycemicindex.com

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